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Green Manure

The cultivation of green manure significantly improves the soil health. On the field and in the garden alike, green manure has numerous positive effects on the soil. Due to their root penetration, the plants significantly contribute to achieving a good soil structure and increase the fertility by means of the addition of biomass. Depending on the selected cultivar, various soil properties can be promoted and the quality can be improved. 

Deep-rooted varieties help to make nutrients from deeper layers available once again and loosen the soil. Leguminous fruit (clovers, vetches, peas, alfalfa, broad beans) bind nitrogen from the air through their symbiosis with nodule bacteria (rhizobia) and accumulate it in the soil. 

Well-developed green manure crops additionally suppress the spreading of weeds and protect the soil from dehydration. Perennials protect the soil very well from eluviation and erosion during the winter period. Moreover, varieties which are not frost resistant may form a protective layer for the soil and can be easily incorporated in the soil during the spring period.

When selecting a green manure, the plant family of the subsequent cultivation has to be kept in mind (crop rotation). This means that no other cruciferous plants such as cabbage, radish or cress should be cultivated after the planting of mustard and that no peas, beans or similar vegetables should be cultivated following the planting of legumes.

In order to prevent an undesired spread or multiplication of the green manure, it is recommended to cut the crops on time before or at the flowering period, but in any case before the seeds ripen. 

Art.no.

Variety 

Growth and usage

Frost resistance

  Restrictions regarding crop rotation

Sowing date

Sowing quantity

Gr1

Buckwheat

undemanding, rapidly growing, rapid soil shadowing, bee pasture

not frost-resistant

independent of crop rotation

End of April - August

600g/are

Gr2

Winter vetch

deep-rooting, enriches the soil with large quantities of organic substance; nitrogen collector

perennial

period of several years before planting peas and beans

August - beginning of October

600-800g/are

Gr3 

California Bluebell

fast growing, soil shadowing, strong root development, produces a good soil structure; good bee pasture

not frost-resistant (small plants can withstand mild winters)

independent of crop rotation 

April - August for flowering; until the beginning of Sep-tember

100-300g/are

Gr4

Summer vetch

good weed suppression, rapidly growing, climbing, intense root penetration; provides the soil with nitrogen

not frost-resistant

period of several years before planting peas and beans

April - end of July

1-1,25kg/are

Gr5

Yellow mustard

fast growing, rapidly covers and intensely roots the soil

not frost-resistant

not before the cultivation of other cruciferous plants (cabbage, cress, radish, rape etc.)

April/May - September

200-300g/are

Gr6

Peavine

good root penetration; for all soils; drought-resistant and oxygen-forming legume

not frost-resistant

period of several years before planting peas and beans

March - September

1,5 - 2kg/are

Gr7

Broad bean/Peavine mixture

in combination binds large quantities of nitrogen; fast growing; leaves a fine, crumbly soil surface

not frost-resistant 

period of several years before planting peas and beans

March - September

1,5 - 2kg/are

Gr8

Crimson clover

very fast growing; good weed suppression; intense root penetration; flowers of red colour; good preceding crop effect

frost-resistant

period of several years before planting peas and beans

April - mid-September

300-400g/are

Gr9

Clover grass

for biennial use

frost-resistant

not before the cultivation of legumes

April - September

300-400g/are

Gr10

Alexandrine clover

for multiple cutting and annual cultivation; rapid soil covering; nitrogen-fixing; requires warmth and humidity; bee pasture 

certainly frost-resistant

not before the cultivation of legumes

May - end of July

200-300g/are

Gr12

Alfalfa

important nitrogen supplier; forms a deep root system

perennial

not before the cultivation of legumes

March - September

150 - 200g/are

Gr14

Sunflower

high green matter yield, also loosens deep soil layers; leave on the field over the winter as it is a good nourishment for insects, bees and bumblebees

not frost-resistant  

period of several years before planting peas and beans

End of February - September

400-800g/are

Gr16

Broad beans

supplies large quantities of nitrogen and provides for an optimum soil condition; recommended as a preceding crop for plants with a high demand for nutrients

not frost-resistant 

period of several years before planting peas and beans

End of February - September

1,6 - 2,2,kg/are

Gr17

Red clover

high green and dry matter yields, high quality fodder; nitrogen-fixing; enhances the soil condition

perennial

not before the legumes

March - September

20-25kg/ha

Gr18

Marigold (calendula), mixture

good ground-cover plant; enhances the soil health; makes the soil crumbly; plant which is appreciated by bees

not frost-resistant

independent of crop rotation

March - August

80 - 120g/are

Gr19

Chinese mallow

good ground-cover plant, plenty of leaf mass; takes very well to cutting; large taproots, loosens the soil optimally

not frost-resistant 

independent of crop rotation

April-June

100g/are

 

 

 

 

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